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About Lesson

The History paper consists of all the aspects of Indian History, Pre-history, Ancient period, Medieval Indian history, and Modern India including the National Movement and post-independent phase.

It also consists of the Historical Method, Research Methodology and Historiography. Since the subject and the boundaries of Indian history are vast and comprehensive, it has been systematically analyzed and synthesized into Ten Units.

History Unit – I

  • Negotiating the Sources: Archaeological sources: Exploration, Excavation, Epigraphy, and Numismatics. Dating of Archaeological Sites. Literary Sources: Indigenous Literature: Primary and Secondary: the problem of dating Religious and Secular Literature, Myths, Legends, etc. Foreign Accounts: Greek, Chinese, and Arabic.
    Pastoralism and Food production: Neolithic and Chalcolithic Phase: Settlement, distribution, tools, and patterns of exchange.
    Indus/Harappa Civilization: Origin, extent, major sites, settlement pattern, craft specialization, religion, society and polity, Decline of Indus Civilization, Internal and external trade, First urbanization in India.
    Vedic and later Vedic periods; Aryan debates, Political and Social Institutions, State Structure and Theories of State; Emergence of Varnas and Social Stratification, Religious and Philosophical Ideas. Introduction of Iron Technology, Megaliths of South India.
    Expansion of State system: Mahajanapadas, Monarchical and Republican States, Economic and Social Developments and Emergence of Second Urbanization in 6th century BCE; Emergence of heterodox sects-Jainism, Buddhism and Ajivikas.

History Unit – II

  • From State to Empire: Rise of Magadha, Greek invasion under Alexander and its effects, Mauryan expansion, Mauryan polity, society, economy, Asoka’s Dhamma and its Nature, Decline and Disintegration of the Mauryan Empire, Mauryan art and architecture, Asokan edicts: language and script.
  • Dissolution of Empire and Emergence of Regional Powers: Indo-Greeks, Sungas, Satavahanas, Kushanas and Saka-Ksatrapas, Sangam literature, polity and society in South India as reflected in Sangam literature. Trade and commerce from 2nd century BCE to 3rd century CE, Trade with the Roman World, Emergence of Mahayana Buddhism, Kharavela and Jainism, Post-Mauryan art and Architecture. Gandhara, Mathura, and Amaravati schools.
    Gupta Vakataka age: Polity and Society, Agrarian Economy, Land Grants, Land Revenue and Land Rights, Gupta Coins, Beginning of Temple Architecture, Emergence of Puranic Hinduism, Development of Sanskrit Language and Literature. Developments in Science Technology, Astronomy, Mathematics, and Medicine.
    Harsha and his Times: Administration and Religion.
    Salankayanas and Visnukundins in Andhradesa.

History Unit – III

  • The emergence of Regional Kingdoms: Kingdoms in Deccan: Gangas, Kadmabas, Western and Eastern Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Kalyani Chalukyas, Kakatiyas, Hoysalas, and Yadavas.
    Kingdoms in South India: Pallavas, Ceras, Colas and Pandyas,
    Kingdoms in Eastern India: Palas and Senas of Bengal, Varmans of Kamarupa, Bhaumakaras, and Somavamsis of Odisha.
    Kingdoms in Western India: Maitrakas of Vallabhi and Chalukyas of Gujarat.
    Kingdoms in North India: Gurjara-Pratiharas, Kalacuri-Chedis, Gahadavalas and Paramaras.
    Characteristics of Early Medieval India: Administration and Political Structure Legitimation of Kingship.
    Agrarian economy; land grants, changing production relations; graded land rights and peasantry, water resources, taxation system, coins, and currency system;
    Trade and urbanization: patterns of trade, and urban settlements, ports, and trade routes, merchandise and exchange, trade guilds; trade and colonization in Southeast Asia.
    Growth of Brahminical religions: Vaisnavism and Saivism; Temples; Patronage and Regional Ramification; Temple Architecture and Regional Styles. Dana, Tirtha, and Bhakti, Tamil Bhakti movement – Shankara, Madhava, and Ramanujacharya.
    Society: Varna, Jati, and Proliferation of Castes, Position of women; Gender, marriage and property relations; Women in public life. Tribes as peasants and their place in Varna order. Untouchability.
    Education and Educational Institutions: Agraharas, Mathas, and Mahaviharas as Centres of Education. Growth of Regional Languages. Debates of state formation in early medieval India: A) Feudal model; B) Segmentary model; C) Integrative model
    Arab contracts: Suleiman Ghaznavid conquests. Alberuni’s Accounts.

History Unit – IV

  • Source of Medieval Indian History: Archaeological, Epigraphic and Numismatic sources, Material evidence and Monuments; Chronicles; Literary sources – Persian, Sanskrit, and Regional languages; Daftar Khannas: Firmans, Bahis / Pothis / Akhbarat; Foreign Travellers’ Accounts – Persian and Arabic.
    Political Developments – The Delhi Sultanate – the Ghorids, the Turks, the Khaljis, the Tughlaqs, the sayyids, and the Lodis. The decline of Delhi Sultanate.
    Foundation of the Mughal Empire – Babur, Humayun, and the Suris; Expansion and Consolidation from Akbar to Aurangzeb. The decline of the Mughal Empire.
    Later Mughals and Disintegration of the Mughal Empire.
    The Vijayanagara and the Bahmanis – Deccan Sultanate; Bijapur, Golkonda, Bidar, Berar and Ahmadnagar – Rise, Expansion and Disintegration; Eastern Gangas and Suryavamshi Gajapatis.
    Rise of the Marathas & the foundation of Swaraj by Shivaji; its expansion under the Peshwas; Mughal – Maratha relations, Maratha Confederacy, Causes of Decline.

History Unit – V

  • Administration & Economy: Administration under the Sultanate, Nature of State – Theocratic and Theocentric, Central, Provincial and Local Administration, Law of succession.
    Sher Shah’s Administrative Reforms; Mughal Administration – Central, Provincial and Local: Mansabdari and Jagirdari Systems.
    Administrative System in the Deccan – The Vijayanagara State & Polity, Bahamani Administrative System; Maratha Administration – Asta Pradhan.
    Frontier Policies under Delhi Sultanate and Mughals.
    Inter-State Relations during the Sultanate and the Mughals.
    Agricultural Production and Irrigation System, Village Economy, Peasantry, Grants and Agricultural Loans, Urbanization and Demographic Structure.
    Industries – Cotton Textiles, Handicrafts, Agro-Based industries, Organisation, Factories & Technology.
  • Trade and Commerce – State Policies, Internal and External Trade: European Trade, Trade Centres and Ports, Transport and Communication.
    Hundi (Bills of Exchange) and Insurance, State Income and Expenditure, Currency, Mint System; Famines and Peasant Revolts.

History Unit – VI

  • Society and Culture: Social Organisation and Social Structure.
    The Sufis – Their Orders, Beliefs and Practices, the leading Sufi Saints, Social Synchronization.
    Bhakti Movement – Shaivism; Vaishnavism, Shaktism.
    The Saints of the Medieval Period – North and South – their impact on Socio-Political and Religious Life – Women Saints of Medieval India.
    The Sikh Movement – Guru Nanak Dev: his teachings and practices, Adi Granth; the Khalsa.
    Social Classification: Ruling Class, Major Religious Groups, the Ulemas, the Mercantile and Professional Classes – Rajput Society.
    Rural society – Petty Chieftains, Village Officials, Cultivators, and Non-Cultivating Classes, Artisans.
    Position of Women – Zanana System – Devadasi System.
    Development of Education, Centres of Education and Curriculum, Madarasa Education.
    Fine Arts – Major Schools of Painting – Mughal, Rajasthani, Pahari, Garhwali; Development of Music.
    Art and Architecture, Indo-Islamic Architecture, Mughal Architecture, Regional Styles.
    Indo-Arabic Architecture, Mughal Gardens, Maratha Forts, Shrines, and Temples.

History Unit –VII

  • Sources of Modern Indian History: Archival Materials, Biographies and Memoirs, Newspapers, Oral Evidence, Creative Literature and Painting, Monuments, Coins.
    Rise of British Power: European Traders in India in the 16th to 18th Centuries – Portuguese, Dutch, French, and the British.
    Establishment and Expansion of British Dominion in India.
  • British Relations with Principal Indian States – Bengal, Oudh, Hyderabad, Mysore, Carnatic, and Punjab.
    Revolt of 1857, Causes, Nature and Impact.
    Administration of the Company and the Crown; Evolution of Central and Provincial Structure under East India Company.
    Paramountcy, Civil Service, Judiciary, Police and the Army under the Company; British Policy and Paramountcy in the Princely States under the Crown.
    Local Self-Government.
    Constitutional Changes, 1909 – 1935.

History Unit – VIII

  • Colonial Economy: Changing Composition, Volume, and Direction of Trade.
    Expansion and Commercialization of Agriculture, Land Rights, Land Settlements, Rural Indebtedness, Landless Labour, Irrigation and Canal System.
    The decline of Industries – Changing Socio-Economic Conditions of Artisans; De-urbanisation; Economic Drain; World Wars and Economy.
    British Industrial Policy; Major Modern Industries; Nature of Factory Legislation; Labour and Trade Union Movements.
    Monetary Policy, Banking, Currency and Exchange, Railways and Road Transport, Communications – Post & Telegraph.
    Growth of New Urban Centres; New Features of Town Planning and Architecture, Urban Society and Urban Problems.
    Famines, Epidemics, and the Government Policy.
    Tribal and Peasant Movements.
    Indian Society in Transition: Contact with Christianity – the Missions and Missionaries; Critique of Indian Social and Economic Practices and Religious Beliefs; Educational and Other Activities.
    The New Education – Government Policy; Levels and Contents; English Language; Development of Science, Technology, Public Health & Medicine – Towards Modernism.
    Indian Renaissance – Socio-Religious Reforms; Emergence of Middle Class; Caste Associations and Caste Mobility.
  • Women’s Question – Nationalist Discourse; Women’s Organisations; British Legislation concerning Women, Gender Identity & Constitutional Position.
    The Printing Press – Journalistic Activity and the Public opinion.
    Modernization of Indian Languages and Literary Forms – Reorientation in Painting, Music and Performing Arts.

History Unit – IX

  • Rise of Indian Nationalism: Social and Economic basis of Nationalism.
    Birth of Indian National Congress; Ideologies and Programmes of the Indian
    National Congress, 1885-1920: Early Nationalists, Assertive Nationalists, and Revolutionaries.
    Swadeshi and Swaraj.
    Gandhian Mass Movements; Subhas Chandra Bose and INA; Role of Middle Class in National Movement; Women Participation in National Movement.
    Left-Wing Politics.
    Depressed Class Movement.
    Communal Politics; Muslim League and Genesis of Pakistan.
    Towards Independence and Partition.
    India after Independence: Challenges of Partition; Integration of the Indian Princely States; Kashmir, Hyderabad & Junagarh.
    R. Ambedkar – The making of the Indian Constitution, its Features.
    The Structure of Bureaucracy.
    New Education Policy.
    Economic Policies and the Planning process; Development, Displacement, and Tribal Issues.
    Linguistic Reorganisation of States; Centre-State Relations.
    Foreign Policy Initiatives – Panchsheel; Dynamics of Indian Politics-Emergency; Liberalisation, Privatisation & Globalisation of Indian Economy

History Unit – X

  • Historical Method, Research, Methodology, and Historiography:
    Scope and Importance of History
    Objectivity and Bias in History
    Heuristics Operation, Criticism in History, Synthesis, and Presentation
    History and it’s Auxiliary Sciences
    History a Science, Arts or a Social Science
    Causation and Imagination in History
    Significance of Regional History
    Recent Trends of Indian History
    Research Methodology
    Hypothesis in History
    Area of Proposed Research
    Sources – Data Collection, Primary / Secondary, Original, and Transit Sources
    Trends in Historical Research
    Recent Indian Historiography
    Selection of Topic in History
    Notes Taking, References, Footnotes, and Bibliography
    Thesis and Assignment Writing
    Plagiarism, Intellectual Dishonesty and History Writing
    Beginnings of Historical Writings – Greek, Roman, and Church Historiography
    Renaissance and its Impact on History Writing
    Negative and Positive Schools of Historical Writing
    Berlin Revolution in History Writing – Von Ranke
    Marxist Philosophy of History – Scientific Materialism
    Cyclical Theory of History – Oswald Spengler
    Challenge and Response Theory – Arnold Joseph Toynbee
    Post – Modernism in Histor
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